E., Thompson., wood. Targeting C-reactive protein for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. — doi :.1038/nature04672. . M., liuzzo., colizzi., rizzello. Clinical use of C-reactive protein for the prognostic stratification of patients with ischemic heart disease. S., yahya., Sheikh.
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Control planten of the acute phase response. Serum C-reactive protein kinetics after acute myocardial infarction. — doi :.1172/JCI108932. . M., maseri., pepys. Measurement of serum C-reactive protein concentration in myocardial ischaemia and infarction. Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis stent and Disabilities Angina pectoris Study Group. C., bellotti., hawkins. D., polara., cobb. V., Sharif., Gray.
The stimulation of crp synthesis mainly occurs in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, bij most notably il-6 and to a lesser degree il-1 and tumor necrosis alpha (tnf-α) ( 33 ). Pentameric crp can be irreversibly dissociated, with the resultant free subunits termed monomeric (or modified) crp (mCRP). The dissociation of ncrp into free subunits has been observed at either high concentrations of urea ( 34 ) or high temperatures in the absence of calcium ( 35 ). The mcrp molecules are distinguished from ncrp by their different antigenic, biological, and electrophoretic activities ( 36 ) and by the fact that they express different neoepitopes ( 37 ). The two isoforms of crp have been shown to have distinct biological functions in the inflammatory process. For example, khreiss. ( 37 ) provided evidence that ncrp suppresses the adherence of platelets to neutrophils, whereas mcrp enhances these interactions. This difference in function can be explained by the two isoforms binding to differing types of Fcgamma (Fcγ)-receptor involved in the signaling process.
O., borregaard., garred. The innate pattern recognition molecule ficolin-1 is secreted by monocytes/macrophages and is circulating in human plasma. — doi : limm.2008.02.005. . L., hamacher., oak. Crystal structure żylaki of Fcγ receptor i and its implication in high affinity γ-immunoglobulin binding. — doi :.1074/jbc. C-reactive protein versus erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count and alkaline phosphatase in diagnosing bacteraemia in bone and joint infections. — doi :.1111/jpc.12122. . C-reactive protein and atherothrombosis.
The molecule has a ligand-binding face that has a characteristic feature of having two calcium ions per protomer. The calcium ions are important for the stability and binding of ligands. The opposite face interacts with the C1q aspect of the complement pathway as well as interacting with Fc receptors ( 6 ). The pentameric protein is synthesized primarily in liver hepatocytes but has also been reported to be synthesized in other cell types such as smooth muscle cells ( 28 macrophages ( 29 endothelial cells ( 30 lymphocytes, and adipocytes ( 31 ). Crp is first synthesized as monomers and then assembled into the pentamer in the endoplasmic reticulum of the source cell. In hepatocytes, the pentameric protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by binding to two carboxylesterases, gp60a and gp50b ( 32 ). While in a resting (non-inflammatory) state, crp is released slowly from the endoplasmic reticulum, but following an increase in inflammatory cytokine levels, the binding crp to the carboxylesterases decreases and crp is secreted rapidly ( 6 ).
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Interestingly the mode of hrt delivery appears to influence the effect on circulating crp levels. ( 23 ) found that estrogen administered orally increases circulating crp levels vasectomie twofold, whereas estrogen administered transdermally had no effect on circulating crp levels. Similarly, patients taking oral hrt containing estrogens combined with progestogens had an increase in circulating crp levels in the first 12 months of therapy compared to those using transdermal therapy who demonstrated no change disorder in circulating crp levels ( 22 ). In contrast, several other studies have instead shown that circulating crp levels are reduced in humans treated with transdermal estrogen ( 24, 25 ). A reduction in crp levels following peripheral estrogen administration supports the findings of Ashcroft.
( 26 ) demonstrating that estrogen reduces the inflammatory response during wound healing. The effect of transdermal administration of estrogen on local crp levels in peripheral tissues such as skin has not yet been elucidated, with previous studies measuring only circulating levels of crp. Isoforms of crp the pentameric protein, termed native crp (ncrp is characterized by a discoid configuration of five identical non-covalently bound subunits, each 206 amino acids long with a molecular mass of about 23 kda. These five subunits lie in the same orientation around a central pore and arranged in a characteristic lectin fold with a two-layered beta sheet ( 15 ). Each subunit lies with the pch binding site facing the recognition face of the ncrp molecule ( 27 ).
There are many factors that can alter baseline crp levels including age, gender, smoking status, weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure ( 13 ). The average levels of crp in serum in a healthy caucasian is around.8 mg/L, but this baseline can vary greatly in individuals due to other factors, including polymorphisms in the. Crp gene ( 14 ). The human, cRP gene can be found at 1q23.2 on the long arm of chromosome 1, and to date, there have been no allelic variations or genetic deficiencies discovered for this gene although some polymorphisms have been identified ( 13 ). For example, up to 50 of baseline variance in crp is associated with the number of dinucleotide repeats found in an intronic region of the gene ( 15 ). There is no significant seasonal variation in baseline crp concentration; however, twin studies show a significant heritable component in baseline crp values that is independent of age and body mass index ( 16 ).
( 17 ) found evidence that interindividual variation in blood crp levels is 3540 heritable. Increased crp levels are typically associated with disease, but liver failure is one condition observed to impair crp production. Very few drugs reduce elevated crp levels unless they treat the underlying pathology that is causing the acute-phase stimulus ( 16 ). There is emerging research that oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT) causes background levels of circulating crp to increase in postmenopausal women, increasing the risk of thrombotic events such as clots ( 18 ). ( 19 ) found that a combination of estrogen and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) increased crp expression in a model of coronary heart disease in both older men and postmenopausal women, but no effect on crp expression was seen when estrogen supplementation was replaced with. ( 20 ) found that healthy postmenopausal women had nearly twofold increased levels of circulating crp when they were taking oral hrt and that crp was the most affected inflammatory marker. Numerous studies have confirmed that crp is a predictive marker for cardiovascular disease and that hrt use in postmenopausal women increases the risk of stroke and blood clots ( 20 23 ).
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As an acute-phase protein, lamellen the plasma concentration of crp deviates by at least 25 during inflammatory disorders ( 7 ). The highest concentrations of crp are found in serum, with some bacterial infections increasing levels up to 1,000-fold ( 8 ). However, when the stimuli ends, crp values decrease exponentially over 1820 h, close to the half-life of crp ( 9 ). Crp plasma levels increase from around 1 µg/mL to over 500 µg/mL within 2472 h of severe tissue damage such as trauma and progressive cancer ( 10 ). Il-6 is reported to be the main inducer. Crp gene expression, with il-1 enhancing the effect ( 11 ). However, although il-6 is necessary for. Crp gene induction, it is not sufficient to achieve this alone ( 12 ).
C-reactive protein (crp c-reactive protein is a homopentameric acute-phase inflammatory protein, a highly conserved plasma protein that was initially discovered in 1930 by tillet and Francis while investigating the sera of patients suffering from the acute stage. Pneumococcus infection and was named for its reaction with the capsular (C)-polysaccharide. Pneumococcus ( 1 ). In the presence of calcium, crp binds to polysaccharides such as phosphocholine (PCh) on microorganisms and triggers the classical gezocht complement pathway of innate immunity by activating C1q ( 2 ). Crp has many homologs in vertebrates and some invertebrates ( 3 ) and is a member of the pentraxin family, which includes other structurally related molecules such as serum amyloid A ( 4 ). Transcriptional induction of the, cRP gene mainly occurs in hepatocytes in the liver in response to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6) ( 5 ). C-reactive protein exhibits elevated expression during inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, some cardiovascular diseases, and infection ( 6 ).
to systemic lupus erythematosus. — doi :.1093/hmg/ddh021. . S., hellwage., zipfel. Regulation of complement activation by c-reactive protein: targeting the complement inhibitory activity of factor H by an interaction with short consensus repeat domains 7 and 8-11.
J., Schalkwijk., Speijer., hermens. T., van den Bosch. A role for secretory phospholipase A2 and C-reactive protein in the removal of injured cells. mevorach., mascarenhas. O., gershov., Elkon. Complement-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells by human macrophages. C-reactive protein does not opsonize early apoptotic human neutrophils, but binds only membrane-permeable late apoptotic cells and has no effect on their phagocytosis by macrophages. — doi :.1186/. . Pentraxins (crp, sap) in the process of complement activation and clearance of apoptotic bodies through Fcγ lak receptors.
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National Center for biotechnology Information. bottazzi., doni., garlanda., mantovani. An integrated view of humoral innate immunity: pentraxins as a paradigm. — doi :.1146/annurev-immunol. . C-reactive protein: a pentraxin with anti-acetylcholine activity. — doi :.1016/j.lfs.2007.04.031. . P., mold., du clos. Sublytic complement attack exposes C-reactive protein binding sites on cell muziekschool membranes.